Dittmar & Turpie – OT in the NT

When I originally began this blog, I was particularly interested in posting things about the New Testament’s use of the Old Testament (hence oldinthenew.org). Since then, my focus has broken down to include Legos and other non-related things. Well, finally, here’s a post that fits the name of the blog.

While doing my thesis I came across several older books that catalog and describe the places where the New Testament quotes or alludes to the Old Testament. In a recent Google Books search, I’ve found that a few of the more helpful (and RARE) works are now freely available. I’ve purchased copies of these works, and believe me they were hard to find.

First is Wilhelm Dittmar’s Vetus Testamentum in Novo: Die alttestamentlichen Parallelen des neuen Testaments im Wortlaut der Urtexte und der Septuaginta (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1903). Below is a snippet of Dittmar’s treatment of James 1:9-11 and its allusion to Isaiah 40:6-8:

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Vetus Testamentum in Novo Die alttestamentlichen Parallelen des neuen Testaments im Wortlaut der Urtexte und der Septuaginta By Wilhelm Dittmar (Vol 2 = Epistles & Revelation; Vol 1 = Gospels & Acts).

Dittmar’s book is in German, but don’t let that intimidate you. In essence the entire book is a ‘textual apparatus’ arranged in the order of where the quote/allusion occurs in the NT. The back of the book contains a list of parallels to the Old Testament and Apocrypha arranged by OT text.

Another one is David McCalman Turpie’s The Old Testament in the New: A Contribution to Biblical Criticism and Interpretation (London: Williams and Norgate, 1868). Below is a snippet of Turpies treatment of 1 Peter 1:24-25, which contains an explicit quotation of Isaiah 40:6-8.

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The Old Testament in the New A Contribution to Biblical Criticism and Interpretation… By David McCalman Turpie

Turpie’s work is also available via archive.org. This text is a bit harder to navigate than Dittmar’s, given that the entries are arranged by categories defined by the relationship of the NT quotation to the LXX or the MT.

Not to be missed is Crawford Howell Toy’s Quotations in the New Testament (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1884). The above link leads directly to his discussion of James 1:9-11 and 1 Peter 1:24-25.

These texts are all over 100 years old, so they do not take into account evidence from Qumran. So, by all means they are not the final word. It is, of course, a good idea to consult mondern works like Carson and Beale’s Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (which, for the record, does not really address the strong allusion to Isaiah 40 in James 1, so even the new kids on the block miss things).

UPDATE: Mark Hoffman points out that the link I provide above to Dittmar’s Vetus Testamentum in Novo is a link to volume 2. Volume 1 (containing the Gospels and Acts) is available here.

TLG to Charlesworth’s OTP

Each semester I help NT Interp students with their word studies/Greco-Roman & Jewish background studies. TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae) is an exhaustive resource for searching through Classical literature. Here at GCTS we have an online subscription that’s available to students, staff, and faculty. The results list that TLG provides uses the Latin titles of Greek works, and rarely do seminary students know Latin (at least at this seminary). Some of the texts particularly helpful for the New Testament are the relatively early Jewish and Christian texts in the Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Given that the OTP is not covered by the Loeb Classical Library, it can be difficult to track down English translations.

To remedy this I’ve started to put together a table that lists the TLG title (along with other pertinent information) and correlates it with the beginning page number for that work in Charlesworth’s Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (vols 1 & 2). I’ve also included library location information on a few works like Josephus, Philo and the Greek Magical Papyri. The location information that I’ve given is specific to the Goddard Library – but using the standard Library of Congress call numbers.

The table is a work in progress. I hope to add more information in the future. For instance, not all English translations available in the OTP are translations from the extant Greek text. E.g. the translation of 1 Enoch in the OTP is a translation from the Ethiopic text, so the English translation should be used carefully when looking at the Greek fragments available in TLG. I hope to add this kind of information for each work, as well as information on where to find English translations of the Greek – if available. Page numbers in Charles’ Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (APOT) will be added. It would also be helpful to reference the Loeb Classical Library volume numbers for specific works of Josephus and Philo. Another future revision may include information on the Greek literature written between the first century B.C. and the first century A.D. (BCE and CE for folks like NTWrong and Jim West!) I stand corrected by NT Wrong! BTW, the Bishop’s post on Early Judeo-Christian texts has a fantastic categorization of these texts by genre and date. Fantastic!

Here’s a link to the table (it’s a sloppy conversion to HTML from an Excel document, but I’ll clean that up later.

TLG to OTP Chart

Those lucky enough to own the Accordance module don’t have to worry about this too much – they’ve got both English and Greek texts available to them in parallel, and the English texts are translations of the Greek rather than the other Ancient languages represented. The Logos version (which has been in prepub forever, but due in November) has the Greek text, but as of now Logos does not have English translations from the Greek (but rather links to Charles’ APOT.

A few links of interest:

Lego Reference Desk

I put together this little Lego vignette depicting me at the Reference Desk at the Goddard Library of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. I decided to pick my favorite part of the year for the scene – the first Reading Week – when all of the Interpreting the New Testament (NT502) are working on their word studies. I’ve seen this frantic look all too often. I feel sorry for the harried students, but it’s nice to feel needed. ;^) Here’s a link to the Brickshelf Gallery, and here’s another to my Facebook album.

ICC Commentaries Online

Mark Hoffman (of Biblical Studies & Technological Tools) and Rod Decker (of the NT Resources blog) have both posted lists of International Critical Commentaries (ICC) that are available online. These titles are all in public domain and are completely free. Some of them are still widely referenced today. Of course it’s “old” scholarship, but as Rod Decker remarks, It’s “not a bad collection for the price.”

  • See Hoffman’s Biblical Studies & Technological Tools page for OT ICC.
  • See Decker’s NT Resources page for NT ICC.

Thanks Mark & Rod!

Imperial Presence in James

Torrey Seland of the Philo of Alexandrial Blog and the Resource Pages for Biblical Studies Blog posts about a recently defended doctoral dissertation by Ingeborg A.K. Kvammen, titled “Imperial Presence in the Assembly: An Interpretation of Jas 2:1-13 with a Postcolonial Optic.” The abstract begins:

This dissertation presents a historical interpretation of Jas 2:1-13 with a postcolonial optic. The postcolonial optic is used due to two reasons. First, it is suitable for the material at hand, and second, there is a research lacuna when it comes to Jas 2:1-13 and postcolonialism.

Methodologically a historical interpretation of the text and postcolonialism is combined through Vernon K. Robbins’ socio-rhetorical interpretation. With Robbins as a point of departure, the methodological focus is a) inner texture, understood as the rhetoric of the text, the structure of the text and the building of an argument, b) intertexture, with a focus on how the text relates to other Jewish-Christian texts and the Graeco-Roman culture.

For the rest of the abstract, see Torrey Seland’s original post.

Basic Bibliographies for Theological Research

I’ve been working on some bibliographic resources for the upcoming Fall semester at GCTS, and I thought I’d pass this along. Below is a list of basic bibliographic resources for theological studies.* These books and resources serve as “gateways” to more resources. I’ve also included a few guides to writing theology and research in general. For each entry I’ve provided the Library of Congress call number to the text in the Goddard Library (where I work). I’ve also provided links to to Amazon.com for purchase and Worldcat.org for local library holdings. If you have any further suggestions for research guides in theology, pass them along in the comments.

Theological Research in General

  • Barber, Cyril J., and Robert M. Kraus, Jr. Introduction to Theological Research: A Guide for College and Seminary Students. 2nd ed. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2000. First choice for purchase (after Turabian). The paragraph style has more explanation than Stewart. Ref. BR118.B28 2000 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Kepple, Robert J., and John R. Muether. Reference Works for Theological Research: An Annotated Selective Bibliographical Guide. 3rd ed. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1992. Ref. Z7751.K46 1991 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Stewart, David R. Literature of Theology. Rev. ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. Especially recommended for more recent material. Evangelicals are well represented. Second choice for purchase (ca. $14) after Barber (and Turabian). Ref. Z7751.B67 2003 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Tucker, Dennis C. Research Techniques for Scholars and Students in Religion and Theology. Medford, N.J: Information Today, 2000. Very helpful, especially for undergrads, despite its simplicity and curious old fashionedness at points. Circ. BL41.T83 2000 | Amazon | Worldcat

Church History

  • Bradley, James E. and Richard A. Muller, Church History: An Introduction to the Research, Reference Works, and Methods. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995. Electronic resources mentioned should be supplemented with Stewart (above). Ref. BR138.B69 1995 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Note also patrologies for the literature of the Early Church (most notably, Johannes Quasten’s Patrology. Ref. BR67.Q2 1983).

Biblical Studies

  • Bauer, David R. Annotated Guide to Biblical Resources for Ministry. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2003. Especially recommended as a comprehensive listing for biblical studies (327 p.). First choice for use in the library. Ref. Z7770.B38 2003 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • *Evans, Craig A. Ancient Texts for New Testament Studies: A Guide to the Background Literature. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2005. Highly recommended for Interp. students. Provides introduction and bibliography for background material. Ref. BS2530 .E93 2005 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • *Sparks, Kenton L. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the Background Literature. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2005. Ref. BS 1184 .S63 2005 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Pay close attention to multiple bibliographies in Ref. Z7770-Z7772; Z7806; Z8455-Z8685

Bible Commentary Evaluation

  • Carson, D. A. New Testament Commentary Survey. 6th ed. Grand Rapids, Baker: 2007. Ref. BS2341.2.C33 2007 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Glynn, John. Commentary and Reference Survey. 10th ed. Grand Rapids, Kregel: 2007. Ref. BS511.3 .G59 2007 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Longman, Tremper, III. Old Testament Commentary Survey. 4th ed. Grand Rapids, Baker: 2007. Ref. Z7772.A1 L64 2007 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Stuart, Douglas K. Guide to Selecting and Using Bible Commentaries. Dallas: Word, 1990. Out of date but still valuable. Ref. Z7770.S88 1990 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • *The Denver Journal. Excellent reviews and commentary lists. Before you buy, check these lists! http://www.denverseminary.edu/resources/the-denver-journal/

Style Manuals

  • *Alexander, Patrick, et al. SBL Handbook of Style for Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies. 1st ed. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1999. Ref. PN147.S26 1999 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. Parenthetic documentation. Ref. LB2369.G53 2003 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • LeMon, Joel M. (ed.) Student Supplement for The SBL Handbook of Style. Accomplishes what the title implies, providing guidelines for writing term papers and theses, and clearing up some ambiguities in the SBL Handbook. Available at http://www.sbl-site.org/assets/pdfs/sblhs_ss92804_revised_ed.pdf.
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 2001. Ref. BF76.7.P83 2001 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • *Turabian, Kate L. Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 7th ed. Rev. by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb and Joseph M. Williams. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2007. Basic style guide, based on the Chicago manual of style. A must have. Ref. LB2369.T8 2007 | Amazon | Worldcat

Guides to Theological Writing / Writing Well

  • *Booth, Wayne C., Joseph M. Williams, and Gregory G. Colomb. The Craft of Research. 3rd ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2008. Library has 2nd ed. Circ. Q180.55.M4 B66 2003 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Core, Deborah. The Seminary Student Writes. St. Louis: Chalice, 2000. Circ. BR117.C67 2000 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Vyhmeister, Nancy J. Quality Research Papers for Students of Religion and Theology. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007. Ref. BL41 .V94 2007 | Amazon | Worldcat
  • Yaghjian, Lucretia B. Writing Theology Well: A Rhetoric for Theological and Biblical Writers. New York & London: Continuum, 2006. Circ BR44.Y34 2006 | Amazon | Worldcat

*This list was originally put together by the former Director of the Goddard Library, Dr. Freeman Barton. I’ve been updating it over the last few years.

Archived Treasure?

Mark Hoffmann (of Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg and the Biblical Studies and Technological Tools blog) recently posted about Microsoft’s decision to drop it’s “Book Search” program – a decision that may affect the Internet Archive. A few responses ensued, including my own. In the comments, Michael Hanel (my co-conspirator at the BibleWorks blog) noted that the Internet Archive is “cautiously optimistic” about being able to continue on in spite of the loss of Microsoft’s funding. The prospect of losing the Archive is a bit scary, and makes me want to buy a terabyte of memory and download everything I’d ever find useful. In my reply to Mark’s post I listed a few of the more important works that I’ve found for biblical studies on the Internet Archive:

How about the works of Kirsopp Lake – including the four volume set of articles on the Book of Acts, titled “The Beginnings of Christianity”. There are also the classics by Henry Barclay Swete – including his version of the Greek OT, as well as his works on the Holy Spirit in the NT and the early church. One of the best finds on this site is the “Cambridge Septuagint.” All the volumes are included — including the volumes on the Historical Books of the OT. These particular volumes are not covered in the TC Ebind Index. Solomon Schechter’s Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology is still used as a textbook in the subject, and has been reprinted many times. J. B. Lightfoot’s multi-volume text and commentary on several of the Apostolic Fathers is also available.

What other treasures are hidden on the Internet Archive? Any that you can’t live without?